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The Russian name "Chukchi" is derived from the Chukchi word Chauchu "rich in reindeer" , which was used by the 'Reindeer Chukchi' to distinguish themselves from the 'Maritime Chukchi,' called Anqallyt "the sea people".
Their name for a member of the Chukchi ethnic group as a whole is Luoravetlan literally 'genuine person'. In Chukchi religion, every object, whether animate or inanimate, is assigned a spirit.
This spirit can be either harmful or benevolent. Some of Chukchi myths reveal a dualistic cosmology. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the state-run farms were reorganized and nominally privatized.
This process was ultimately destructive to the village-based economy in Chukotka. The region has still not fully recovered.
Many rural Chukchi, as well as Russians in Chukotka's villages, have survived in recent years only with the help of direct humanitarian aid.
Some Chukchi have attained university degrees, becoming poets, writers, politicians, teachers and doctors. In prehistoric times, the Chukchi engaged in nomadic hunter gatherer modes of existence.
In current times, there continue to be some elements of subsistence hunting, including that of polar bears ,  marine mammals and reindeer.
However, there are some differences between the traditional lifestyles of the coastal and inland Chuckchi. The former coastal Chukchi were largely settled fishers and hunters mainly of sea mammals.
The inland Chukchi were partial reindeer herders. All of these were based on reindeer herding, with the addition of sea mammal hunting and walrus ivory carving in the coastal areas.
Only a portion of them today work directly in reindeer herding or sea mammal hunting , and continue to live a nomadic lifestyle in yaranga tents.
Russians first began contacting the Chukchi when they reached the Kolyma River and the Anadyr River The overland journey from Yakutsk to Anadyrsk took about six months.
The Chukchi were generally ignored for the next fifty years because they were warlike and did not provide furs or other valuable commodities to tax on.
Armed skirmishes flared up around when the Russians began operating in the Kamchatka Peninsula and needed to protect their communications from the Chukchi and Koryak.
The first attempt to conquer them was made in Other expeditions were sent out in , and with considerable bloodshed but little success. War was renewed in , when the Chukchi defeated an expedition from Okhotsk and killed its commander.
Sacrifices were an important aspect of the major festivals. Shamanist ceremonies were conducted for divination and healing.
After the Russian Revolution the Chukchi were settled on collective farms. Technical improvements and new economic activities have been introduced among them.
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Word in Definition. Wiktionary 0. How to pronounce Chukcha? Alex US English. Daniel British.